Photosynthesis Study – Final Report

The Photosynthesis Study kicked off on July 5, 2012 and concluded on July 31, 2014.

  PS Study Project – Final Report

2012 FLEX/Sentinel-3 Tandem Mission Photosynthesis Study – FINAL REPORT

PMT / Gina Mohammed – 2014-07-28

Gina H. Mohammed, Yves Goulas, Federico Magnani, José Moreno, Julie Olejnícková, Uwe Rascher, Christiaan van der Tol, Wout Verhoef;  Alexander Ac, Fabrice Daumard, Alexander Gallé, Zbynek Malenovský, Dan Pernokis, Juan Pablo Rivera, Jochem Verrelst;  Matthias Drusch.

Acknowledgements:  Sabrina Raddi, Marijke van der Tol, Antonio Volta, Elena Mezzini, Karel Klem, Frantisek Zemek, Ismael Moya, Anke Schickling, Luis Alonso, and Jesús Delegido Gómez;  FLEX Mission Advisory Group, including Elizabeth (Betsy) Middleton, Andreas Huth, Ladislav Nedbal, and Franco Miglietta;  ESA: Stefan Kraft, Umberto Del Bello, and Dirk Schüettemeyer.


The PS Study developed and tested a mechanistically-based model to link steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence with photosynthesis (an advancement of the SCOPE canopy model).  The Study also identified steady-state or solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) features that can be useful as indicators of stress effects from water deficit, temperature extremes, and nitrogen insufficiency, using red and far-red fluorescence peaks and their ratios.

A key finding from both the modelling initiative and the stress evaluations was the inherent value of having both the red and far-red fluorescence emission peaks for applications.  This underscores the unique advantages of FLEX, since its FLORIS sensor would be optimized to extract these spectral features with appropriate spatial and spectral detail.


The FULL REPORT file contains the Abstract and Executive Summary (and the latest Errata sheet), although these are also provided as separate files.  The Cover Title Page is intended only for printing a cover on cardstock, so it is not included within the main document.

To download an item, right-click the VIEW link and use your web browser's "Save As" or "Save Link As" function.


The Final Report is laid out with page parity (all sections start on an odd page), so there are alternating blank pages at the very beginning of the PDF file.

PDF file (5.19mb) – FULL REPORTView
PDF file (180 kb) – COVER TITLE PAGE Only (for cardstock)View
PDF file (392 kb) – EXECUTIVE SUMMARYView
PDF file (229 kb) – ABSTRACTView
PDF file (179 kb) – ERRATAView

About the FLEX Photosynthesis Study...

This study targetted the linkage between solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis in terrestrial vegetation.  A dedicated photosynthesis model based on state-of-the-art existing modules was developed and implemented.  We also developed and tested a prototype algorithm that can derive photosynthesis from FLEX tandem mission measurements.  The Photosynthesis Study was part of the package of parallel study activities needed for assessment of the FLEX candidate mission.

For further information about the PS Study, click here To see a list of publications from the Study, click here.